CLAND will address three key reserach challenges and their interactions 
Challenge 1 - Land-based climate mitigation. This challenge will study land-based mitigation of climate change by enhancing carbon sequestration in biomass and soils, and reducing their CH4 and N2O emissions. We will investigate the contributions of and interactions between technology-driven and ‘nature-based’ solutions (leading to new food production systems) through which land use and land management can mitigate climate change over different time horizons, their economic feasibility, and indirect environmental consequences. 
Challenge 2 - Agriculture and forestry under climate pressure. This challenge will perform the research needed for practical solutions to reduce the risk of the loss of agricultural and forest production from climate change, while accounting for other environmental risks (e.g. ozone exposure, decrease in soil fertility and in water resources) focusing on the synergies and trade-offs between technological and agro-ecological solutions. This work, based on models calibrated with observations for different land use and land management practices, will have a special focus on France, China and sub-Saharan African countries, in collaboration with Beijing University and University of Pretoria.
Challenge 3 - Managing the transition towards integrated land management. This challenge will mobilise the research teams to analyse policy options for managing the transition towards new land use systems that articulate climate change adaptation and mitigation while maintaining ecosystem biodiversity. The main tools will be socio-economic land use models that can be coupled with models cutivated ecosystems for production of food and fibers and run for future scenarios. This work will build upon the first two challenges to explore concrete solutions based on the analysis of data on the ground (field trials) as well as model simulations, with particular attention paid to the transition in the next decades